In Stranded Deep, wood is involved in just about every single crafting recipe. This would lead players to believe that Stranded Deep would offer trees that grow and give them enough wood to use. Unfortunately, the game purposefully provides a limited amount of trees on each island.
Sadly, no respawns are present for Palms and Ficus Trees, so players must move to other islands if they run out. The palm sapling and yucca trees do grow back, so that's a plus. Although Palm Saplings usually grow back within one to three in-game days after harvesting, they will never grow into Palm Trees.
So why don't trees respawn in Stranded Deep?
The developers likely did this to encourage exploration; if trees had grown back, the player would feel no rush to escape the islands. Rather than taking unnecessary risks on their character, the game would reward players for staying on the first few islands.
It is more realistic; trees don't take two days to grow back but instead take years. So the developers of Stranded Deep have a great excuse as to why trees don't grow back. It still doesn't help those who would rather take their time and become lifetime survivors.
A player's survival strategy depends on the decisions they make throughout Stranded Deep.
By chopping down an island's trees, the player's island will be devoid of its resources, so the player must traverse dangerous waters to find more trees. Stranded Deep players are advised to build a raft from some of their available wood as trees become scarce on the island so that they can travel across the sea for more resources.
Upon further reflection, it becomes clear why Stranded Deep's developers chose not to allow trees to regenerate. No matter how players feel, the developers have yet to change this feature, and they most likely will not change the tree respawn anytime soon.